Публікація: The Problem of Trojan Inclusions in Software and Hardware
This paper describes an information security threat implemented in software and hardware by means of malicious inclusions called Trojans. Creation of Trojans is mostly driven by criminal with the purpose of financial profit and sabotage. The Trojans programs can steal money from your bank account, payment system, credit card numbers, and other personal information; use your computer as a part of “zombie” network to perform fraudulent actions of hacker. The hardware Trojans can be embedded in safety critical, security and military systems, such as weapon control systems, battlefield communication systems, information collection and decision making systems, satellite electronics, banking systems, cryptosystems, etc. The goal of the paper is to compare the security problem of high level computer systems with the same problem in hardware systems, such as System-onChip. Therefore, the class of Trojan malicious programs is considered in both environments: software and hardware. Nowadays e-crime and e-terrorism are the hottest topic in information security. Digital systems are everywhere in our life. And millions of computers are infected by malicious programs - malware, part of them are enslaved within botnets, launching distributed DoS attacks, working as anonymizers and spam senders. Currently, every two seconds new malicious program appears according to Kaspersky Lab statistics . All these samples are high level software for particular OS. Also many anti-virus solutions are available on the market to protect the users from security threats, such as malware, hacker attacks, spam. The worse thing about malicious inclusions is that they can be found at hardware level as well. Such alterations can compromise the system by modifying its functionality, intercepting the data or blocking the work of the whole system. Fortunately, they are limited in proliferation and cannot infect other devices. In contrast to malicious programs, hardware malicious circuits are hardly-detectable. There is no unified protection solution, like Antivirus. There are three main categories of malicious programs: x Viruses - program code that replicates on host system. x Worms (network worms) – type of malicious programs, that spread by network channels, capable of overcoming the protection of computer systems and computer networks, as well as the creation and further copies proliferation, that are not always the same as the original ones, and implementation of other harmful effects. x Trojans – programs that damage victim machines or threaten data integrity, or impair the functioning of the victim machine. 1. Hacker utilities and other malware. Unlike, the world of hardware devices has only the one class of malware – Hardware Trojan (HT). Because, the chip’s IP cores cannot be modified by viruses when it is already synthesized into a die. And also there is no required communication channel for worm proliferation. Both those classes need the unified environment for reproduction and spreading. So the most popular threat implemented in hardware is Trojan circuit. The main purpose of HT is to steal confidential information, modify the functionality and transmitting data or block/destroy device. HT can be implemented as hardware inclusions to application specific ICs (ASICs), microprocessors, digital signal processors (DSPs), or as IP core modifications for field programmable gate arrays (FPGA) .
Adamov Alexander The Problem of Trojan Inclusions in Software and Hardware/Alexander Adamov, Alexander Saprykin//Proceedings of IEEE East-West Design & Test Symposium (EWDTS’09)